Diamond Wheel -
Diamond wheels are grinding wheels with industrial diamonds bonded to the periphery.
They are used for grinding extremely hard materials such as carbide tips, gemstones or concrete.
Introduction to Grinding Wheel
Grinding wheels are used for metal removal, dimensioning, and finishing. They consist of an integral shank, pin, shaft, or mandrel that drives a mounted wheel or blades. There are many types of grinding wheels, some of which are numbered by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). Straight wheels are simple, flat discs without any recesses, flaring or cups. Type 5 wheels are recessed on one side. Type 7 wheels are recessed on both sides. Both flaring-cup and straight-cup wheels are commonly available. Tapered grinding wheels have a thicker cross section at the bore. Cylindrical wheels feature a length that is equal to or greater than the thickness of the wheel. Depressed center wheels exclude the mounting hardware from the grinding process. Dish wheels often contain superabrasives. Types DW and IG wheels are examples of products with a rounded ball or point for portable die grinding and deburring applications. Cone wheels feature a curved or straight edge and, optionally, a nose radius. By contrast, plug wheels offer a square or curved grinding end. Blank wheels can be customized for a variety of applications.
Grinding wheels use several types of abrasive grains. Aluminum oxide, the most common industrial mineral in use today, is used either individually or with other materials to form ceramic grains. Silicon carbine, a synthetic abrasive that is harder than aluminum oxide, is typically used with nonferrous materials such as brass, aluminum, and titanium. Alumina-zirconia grains fuse aluminum oxide and zirconium oxide and are used to improve grinding performance on materials such as stainless steel. Synthetic diamond superabrasives are used for grinding nonferrous metals, ceramics, glass, stone, and building materials. Cubic boron nitride (CBN), another type of superabrasive, provides superior grinding performance on carbon and alloy steels. CBN is second only to diamond in terms of hardness. Crushed tungsten carbide grits are used in metal-bonded products to abrade tough materials such as composites, fiberglass, reinforced plastics, and rubber.
Grinding wheels differ in terms of grit sizes and bond types. Grit sizes are based on ANSI (U.S.), FEPA (European), JIS (Japanese), and Micron graded standards and describe both upper and lower limits. Bond types include resin, plastic, rubber, shellac, silicate or oxychloride, and vitrified glass. Metal bond systems are used mainly for superabrasive or tungsten carbide grit products. There are three basic types of metal bonds: sintered, metal single layer, and electroplated. Sintered metal bond systems are used when a thicker layer of superabrasive is required. Metal single layer (MSL) wheels consists of a specialized braze layer that forms a single layer of superabrasive. Electroplated bonds are used to produce fine grit superabrasives.
Grinding wheels vary in terms of specifications and features. Specifications include outer diameter (OD), inner diameter (ID), thickness, rotary speed, and mounting options. Devices can be mounted with a plate, on a quill, or using a quick-change mechanism. Features for grinding wheels include structure and face type. Open structure abrasives feature a low concentration. Conversely, closed structure abrasives feature a high concentration. Some grinding wheels have an angled or beveled face (E face) for threading or similar applications. Others have a tapered face (V, B faces) for fluting. Grinding wheels with a rounded face (F face) are also available.